Tympanoplasty: what is it and why should it be done?
The middle ear in a healthy person is isolated from the environment by the tympanic membrane. A perforation (hole) in the tympanic membrane indicates the presence of chronic otitis media (mesotympanitis). In this condition, a person has reduced hearing, there may be periodic discharge from the ear. Exacerbations also occur when water gets in. Dizziness may occur when exposed to cold air. Mesotympanitis, unlike epitympanitis, is not a life-threatening disease, but it can be accompanied by hearing loss and requires special behavior, which reduces life comfort.
Preoperative examination and diagnosis
Often, apart from the examination by an otolaryngologist and audiometry, no other studies are required. If a concomitant pathology is suspected, additional research in the form of computed tomography of the temporal bones may be necessary.
Before the patient is admitted to the hospital, the otolaryngologist recommends that he undergo a series of laboratory tests and functional tests. It depends on their results whether complications can be avoided later.
Mandatory examination includes:
- general blood analysis;
- blood biochemistry;
- coagulogram - blood clotting analysis;
- general urine analysis;
- analysis for blood group and Rh factor;
- chest fluorography;
Audiometry should be performed before surgery and should be taken to the audiometric office on the day of discharge to avoid its loss. You can make a photocopy or photo of it, but the document itself must be kept in the audiometric office, as this is the only way to control hearing.
Preparation for surgery
On the eve of the operation you must:
give up alcohol and smoking;
refuse heavy food, while the last meal should be at least 6 hours before the operation (low-fat broth, meat or fish, fruits and vegetables);
do not drink 4 hours before surgery;
be on an empty stomach if the surgery is performed in the morning.
- comfortable clothing (tracksuit, T-shirts made of natural fabric, changeable underwear);
- comfortable shoes;
- personal hygiene products;
- book or laptop, since after the operation you will have to spend another 1-2 days in the hospital.
After the end of the operation, when you wake up, there will be a bandage on your head. Until you wake up completely, you will be under the supervision of doctors and only after that you will be transferred to the ward, so if you were told that the operation lasts about an hour and a half, this does not mean that immediately after the end you will be in the ward: the process may take another 1-2 hours. After you arrive at the ward, you can drink in 2-3 hours. It is worth remembering that in certain cases, you may need to lie down for a day, but you will be warned about this if necessary.
Postoperative period in the clinic
Usually, the otolaryngologist will remove the outer bandage one day after surgery. Most often, a cosmetic suture is used behind the ear, which is practically invisible. There are Merocel tampons in your ear canal, under which your new eardrum is engrafted. Tampons in the ear canal will stay for a month until they are removed, drops must be instilled onto this tampon. After removing the bandage, there may be a slight protrusion of the ear, which will go away over time. Only after the first dressing will the doctor be able to tell the estimated discharge date.
Postoperative period at home
It is necessary to follow all the doctor's recommendations since the greatest number of complications occur at home. Drug therapy is usually given individually to each person at discharge. The stitches are removed 7-8 days after the operation. A month later, you need to come to remove tampons from the external auditory canal and test your hearing.
It is recommended:
- to take a slightly warm shower;
- to walk outside;
- to sneeze with an open nose and mouth;
- to keep your ear away from water.
It is prohibited:
- to take a bath;
- to go in for sports 1-3 months after the operation;
- to sneeze;
- to blow your nose;
- to eat crackers, nuts, seeds for 2 weeks;
- to fly 1.5 months after surgery;
- to use the metro for 2-3 weeks (usually undesirable).